Plaquenil is an expensive drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is also used to treat malaria. It is more popular than comparable drugs. It is available in generic and brand versions.
Plaquenil is an expensive drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is also used to treat malaria. It is more popular than comparable drugs. It is available in generic and brand versions.
Also known as: Hydroxychloroquine
Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) is used to treat or prevent malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Hydroxychloroquine is not effective against all strains of malaria, or against malaria in areas where the infection has been resistant to a similar drug called chloroquine.
Plaquenil is also used to treat symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus.
Usual Adult Dose of Plaquenil for Malaria Prophylaxis:
400 mg salt (310 mg base) orally once a week Weight-based dosing: 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally once a week -Maximum dose: 400 mg salt (310 mg base)/dose Comments: -This drug should be administered on the same day of each week. -Suppressive therapy should begin 2 weeks prior to exposure and should continue for 4 weeks after leaving the endemic area. Use: For the prophylaxis of malaria in geographic areas where chloroquine resistance is not reported US CDC Recommendations: 310 mg base (400 mg salt) orally once a week Comments: -An alternative to chloroquine for prophylaxis only in areas with chloroquine-sensitive malaria -Prophylaxis should start 1 to 2 weeks before travel to malarious areas; should continue weekly (same day each week) while in malarious areas and for 4 weeks after leaving such areas -If malaria develops while using this drug for chemoprophylaxis, it should not be used as part of the treatment regimen. -Current guidelines should be consulted for additional information.
Usual Adult Dose of Plaquenil for Malaria:
800 mg salt (620 mg base) orally as an initial dose, followed by 400 mg salt (310 mg base) at 6, 24, and 48 hours after the initial dose Total dose: 2000 mg salt (1550 mg base) Weight-based dosing: -First dose: 13 mg/kg salt (10 mg/kg base) orally -Second dose (6 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally -Third dose (24 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally -Fourth dose (48 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally Maximum Dose: -First dose: 800 mg salt (620 mg base)/dose -Second, third, and fourth dose: 400 mg salt (310 mg base)/dose Comments: -Concomitant therapy with an 8-aminoquinoline compound is necessary for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P ovale infections. Use: For the treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to P falciparum, P malariae, P ovale, and P vivax US CDC Recommendations: 620 mg base (800 mg salt) orally at once, followed by 310 mg base (400 mg salt) orally at 6, 24, and 48 hours Total dose: 1550 mg base (2000 mg salt) Comments: -Recommended for uncomplicated malaria (P falciparum or species not identified) in regions with chloroquine sensitivity -Recommended for uncomplicated malaria (P malariae, P knowlesi, P vivax [unless chloroquine-resistant P vivax suspected], or P ovale) in all regions; if treating P vivax or P ovale infections, concomitant treatment with primaquine (after quantitative testing to rule out glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD] deficiency) is recommended. -Recommended for uncomplicated malaria treatment for pregnant women in regions with chloroquine sensitivity -Current guidelines should be consulted for additional information.
Usual Adult Dose of Plaquenil for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus:
200 to 400 mg salt (155 to 310 mg base)/day orally divided in 1 or 2 doses Comments: -Doses above 400 mg/day are not recommended. -Higher incidence of retinopathy reported when this maintenance dose is exceeded. Uses: For the treatment of chronic discoid lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus
Usual Adult Dose of Plaquenil or Rheumatoid Arthritis:
Initial dose: 400 to 600 mg salt (310 to 465 mg base)/day orally divided in 1 or 2 doses Maintenance dose: 200 to 400 mg salt (155 to 310 mg base)/day orally divided in 1 or 2 doses Maximum dose: 600 mg salt (465 mg base)/day or 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base)/day, whichever is lower Comments: -The action of this drug is cumulative and may require weeks to months to achieve the maximum therapeutic effect. -When a good response is obtained, the initial dose may be reduced by 50% and continued at a maintenance dose. -Higher incidence of retinopathy reported when this maintenance dose is exceeded; 600 mg salt (465 mg base) or 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base), whichever is lower, should not be exceed per day. -Corticosteroids and salicylates may be used with this drug, and they can generally be decreased gradually in dosage or eliminated after a maintenance dose of this drug has been achieved. Use: For the treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis
Usual Pediatric Dose of Plaquenil for Malaria Prophylaxis:
6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally once a week Maximum dose: 400 mg salt (310 mg base)/dose Comments: -This drug should be administered on the same day of each week. -Suppressive therapy should begin 2 weeks prior to exposure and should continue for 4 weeks after leaving the endemic area. Use: For the prophylaxis of malaria in geographic areas where chloroquine resistance is not reported US CDC Recommendations: 5 mg/kg base (6.5 mg/kg salt) orally once a week Maximum dose: 310 mg base (400 mg salt)/dose Comments: -An alternative to chloroquine for prophylaxis only in areas with chloroquine-sensitive malaria -Prophylaxis should start 1 to 2 weeks before travel to malarious areas; should continue weekly (same day each week) while in malarious areas and for 4 weeks after leaving such areas -If malaria develops while using this drug for chemoprophylaxis, it should not be used as part of the treatment regimen. -Current guidelines should be consulted for additional information.
Usual Pediatric Dose of Plaquenil for Malaria:
First dose: 13 mg/kg salt (10 mg/kg base) orally Second dose (6 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally Third dose (24 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally Fourth dose (48 hours after first dose): 6.5 mg/kg salt (5 mg/kg base) orally Maximum Dose: -First dose: 800 mg salt (620 mg base)/dose -Second, third, and fourth dose: 400 mg salt (310 mg base)/dose Comments: -Concomitant therapy with an 8-aminoquinoline compound is necessary for radical cure of P vivax and P ovale infections. Use: For the treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to P falciparum, P malariae, P ovale, and P vivax US CDC Recommendations: 10 mg/kg base orally at once, followed by 5 mg/kg base orally at 6, 24, and 48 hours Total dose: 25 mg/kg base Comments: -Pediatric dose should never exceed adult dose. -Recommended for uncomplicated malaria (P falciparum or species not identified) in regions with chloroquine sensitivity -Recommended for uncomplicated malaria (P malariae, P knowlesi, P vivax [unless chloroquine-resistant P vivax suspected], or P ovale) in all regions; if treating P vivax or P ovale infections, concomitant treatment with primaquine (after quantitative testing to rule out G6PD deficiency) is recommended. -Current guidelines should be consulted for additional information.
Detailed Plaquenil dosage information
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. An overdose of hydroxychloroquine can be fatal, and must be treated quickly.
Overdose symptoms may include drowsiness, vision changes, seizure, slow heart rate, weak pulse, pounding heartbeats, sudden dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, or slow breathing (breathing may stop).
Keep this medicine out of the reach of children. A hydroxychloroquine overdose can be fatal to a child who accidentally swallows this medicine.
Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Plaquenil are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
You should not use Plaquenil if you are allergic to hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine.
High doses or long-term use of Plaquenil may cause irreversible damage to your retina (the membrane layer inside your eye that helps produce vision). This could progress to permanent vision problems. The risk of retinal damage is higher in people with pre-existing eye problems, kidney disease, or people who also take tamoxifen.
To make sure Plaquenil is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
vision changes or damage to your retina caused by an anti-malaria medication; heart disease, heart rhythm disorder (such as long QT syndrome); diabetes; a stomach disorder; an allergy to quinine; liver or kidney disease; psoriasis; alcoholism; porphyria (a genetic enzyme disorder that causes symptoms affecting the skin or nervous system); or a genetic enzyme deficiency called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Malaria is more likely to cause serious illness or death in a pregnant woman. Having malaria during pregnancy may also increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, and low birth weight.
It is not known whether hydroxychloroquine will harm an unborn baby. If you are pregnant, ask your doctor about the risks of traveling to areas where malaria is common (such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia).
It may not be safe to breastfeed while using Plaquenil. Ask your doctor about any risk.
Plaquenil is not approved for treating lupus or rheumatoid arthritis in anyone younger than 18 years old.
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Fibrinolytic activity of the cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Varying the presence and absence of nest shavings in the correct and incorrect arms of a T-maze in Experiment 1 revealed that nest shavings had both nondirective facilitation and approach-eliciting properties. Increased memory load also led to a growth of theta-band coherence in the left hemisphere and its decrease in the right hemisphere. The substructure is then expanded to the full structure by maximum-likelihood phasing with SHARP and density modification with the program DM. We argue that learning how to manage errors effectively would enable trainee practitioners to improve patient care, reduce the burden on an overstretched health care system and engage in dynamic as opposed to defensive practice. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. In this study, we hypothesized that an imbalance in the MMP-TIMP system may be an intra-ovarian component that contributes to the pathogenesis of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in cows. Factors that increase the risk of developing cancer are early onset of the disease, widespread disease, and a duration of over 10 years. Sox8 and Sox10 are two closely related transcription factors of the Sox protein family with overlapping expression patterns during development.
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In 13 of the 15 patients with mild pleural thickening, the 1-3-mm-thick pleura was separable from the underlying normal intercostal muscle by a layer of extrapleural fat. In this article, we review evidence which implicates 14-3-3 proteins in responses to environmental, metabolic and nutritional stresses, as well as in defence responses to wounding and pathogen attack. By indirect immunofluorescence we detected laminin in cultures of Pam cells ( a mouse keratinocyte cell line) and normal human epidermal cells. Intermittent medication cessation may reduce the risk of exposure to these side effects. Studies of the phylogeny and ontogeny of the specialized lymphatic tissue venules. These results were extended to a series of phenols, thereby demonstrating that the microfluidic peroxidase reactor may have application in high-throughput screening of phenolic polymerization reactions for use in phenolic resin synthesis. In this way, hormonal signals from the gut may be translated into the subjective sensation of satiety.
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